- Women with Atypical Hyperplasia Have a Higher Risk of Breast Cancer
- Mastectomy Patients Most Satisfied with Breast Reconstruction Using Their Own Tissues
- Follow Up for Breast Cancer Patients
- Helping Breast Cancer Patients Adhere to Hormone Therapy
- Opportunities Identified that Reduce Breast Cancer Screening Patient Burden
- Certain Birth Control Pills May Increase Cancer Risk
- Writing May Help Cancer Survivors
- New Method May Allow Breast Cancer Drug to Be Given Through Skin
- Findings Raise Hope of Preventing Breast Cancer with Statins
- Avoiding a Second Biopsy for Breast Cancer Patients
Soda Consumption and Osteoporosis Association in Women
Colas contain caffeine and phosphoric acid, which can adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD). In several observational studies, intake of carbonated beverages has been associated with reduced bone mass, decreased calcium level in the blood, and increased fracture risk.
BMD is reduced in osteoporosis, which is also is diagnosed by the measurement of BMD. In osteoporosis there is a reduction in the protein and mineral matrix of the bone, with an increase in the risk of fracture. Osteoporosis can be prevented with nutritional and lifestyle changes.
Results of a study of 76 girls and 51 boys (14.3 yr and 14.6 yr) showed a strong association between cola beverage consumption and bone fractures in girls, suggesting that the high consumption of carbonated beverages are of great public health significance for girls and women because of their proneness to osteoporosis in later life.
In a study involving 275 students, age range 10 to 22 years, it was concluded that soda drinking was associated with decreased levels of blood calcium and increasing urinary calcium excretion, which could lead to osteoporosis later in life.
A meta-analysis of 88 studies found clear associations of soft drink intake with lower intakes of calcium. Many published studies show that low calcium intake is associated with low bone mass and high fracture. Calcium and vitamin D are the mainstays of nutritional intervention for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
In a study to determine the association of cola consumption with lower BMD, researchers measured BMD at the spine and 3 hip sites in 1413 women and 1125 men in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cola consumption was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. Cola intake was associated with significantly lower BMD at each hip site, but not the spine, in women but not in men. The mean BMD of those with daily cola intake was 3.7% lower at the femoral neck and 5.4% lower at Ward’s area than of those who consumed less than 1 serving cola/month. Similar results were seen for diet cola and, although weaker, for decaffeinated cola. The study determined that intake of cola is associated with low BMD in women.
In a cross-sectional study of 460 high school girls, cola beverage consumption was found to be highly associated with bone fractures.
1. Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP. Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):936-42. PMID: 17023723.
2. Mahmood M, Saleh A, Al-Alawi F, Ahmed F. Health effects of soda drinking in adolescent girls in the United Arab Emirates. J Crit Care. 2008 Sep;23(3):434-40. PMID: 18725052.
3. Wyshak G, Frisch RE. Carbonated beverages, dietary calcium, the dietary calcium/phosphorus ratio, and bone fractures in girls and boys. J Adolesc Health. 1994 May;15(3):210-5. PMID: 8075091.
4. The National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases.
5. Vartanian LR, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD. Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 2007 Apr;97(4):667-75. PMID: 17329656.
6. Wyshak G. Teenaged girls, carbonated beverage consumption, and bone fractures. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Jun;154(6):610-3. PMID: 10850510.